- Author: Robert Hofsink, Philips
- Contact details: firstname.lastname@example.org
An X-ray angiography system is typically used to visualize anatomy, catheters and other instruments during minimally invasive procedures like coronary stenting in the heart or aneurysm repairs in the brain. The X-ray images used to be only 2D, but advances in technology now also allow to make a 3D scan to better visualize the anatomy and use this 3D volume as planning and ‘navigation’ tool for the intervention.
Figure 1. X-ray system acquires 3D volume to visualize the vessels (see red). In this example, it is than overlaid on a MRI scan that the patient had earlier (see purple)
A 3D scan allows better visualization of the anatomy, but is difficult to perform due to the amount and complexity of the steps that need to done. The tools require repetitive training and a lot of expertise, which is not always available in the hospital. Furthermore, staff rotation and variability in their task division (roles) is high, so users are not likely to become expert users before the end of their rotation. Because of this, highly skilled personnel are required to perform the 3D scan and in some cases, when the staff does not feel comfortable in making a 3D scan, they will rely on the 2D images only to do the procedure.
It is the objective of this AdCoS to help the staff become more confident in acquiring and using 3D data. This is done by analysing the workflow steps and developing an improved Human Machine Interface (HMI) that helps the user in the preparation and execution of the 3D Acquisition.
To improve the HMI for the 3D Acquisition and get earlier feedback on usability aspects, several tools from the HF-RTP have been used and integrated in the development process for the new HMI. A task editor is used to identify interaction tasks between the operator and the system. The Human Efficiency Evaluator is used to model the interaction capabilities of the environment and to demonstrate procedures for common tasks. In addition, it executes CASCaS, a cognitive architecture for prediction of human behaviour, allowing analysis of Human Factor metrics. The integration of the tools in the workflow is shown in the following Figure.
Figure 2. Tool integration in the 3D Acquisition Use Case